Animal Biotechnology-Working Areas
In Animal Biotechnology
technology is applied over biological agent of
animal origin for human welfare or it includes controlled use of
biological agent of animal origin for social benefit.
Broadly it's working areas can be divided into two sub categories:
Animal Cell and Tissue Culture
Here we cultivate animal cells and tissues in an artificial growth
medium under aseptic environment. These cells and issues are later
utilized primarily in the field of health care, Pharma and cosmetic
fields in the following ways:
Technology and Production of Artificial Tissues:
cells are being used to produce artificial tissue, organs, which
could help tissue and organ transplantation without rejection.
Artificial brain, pancreatic, sperm cell, skin cell has been
successfully produced using this technology.
It is to produce complete animal similar to its parent, genetically.
Lots of pet animals are being produced in this fashion.
Bone marrow is removed, selected cells amplified, unwanted
(Leukemia) cells removed. Sometime selected cells are genetically
manipulated and then injected back into the patient (a type of gene
therapy) i.e. used to treat reasonably successfully the SCID caused
by deficiency in Adenosine deaminase; in future, target is
A cell line consists of clone of single cell, thus all cells in a
cell line have same genetic composition, and it is used for Vaccine
Production, by culturing virus in it for many generations so that
virus gets attenuated, as pathogenic genes get deleted.
Technique to produce antibodies called Monoclonal Antibodies (MABs),
which can be used as Vaccine.
Through somatic cell nuclear transfer- Its famous example is
To produce tissues or organ from an individual/fetus. At this moment
this is not possible as it’s banned because one has to allow the
fetus to develop at least until the organs we want have
differentiated. So until developmental biology has developed to be
able to make a fertilized egg or stem cell develops into a complete
organ, but not develops all the rest of the person, therapeutic
cloning is a theoretical idea.
(A branch of Embryo Technology related with manipulation of
mammalian embryo) - stem cell are harvested from the egg after five
days of fertilization (Blastocyst). These cells can be used to serve
as replacement cells to treat heart, Alzheimer’s, cancer and other
Genetic Engineering/Transformation and Transgenic Animal Production
are transferred to animal. Its applications are-
Qualitatively and Quantitatively superior animal:
genetic engineering (inserting desired gene (controlling
economically important characters) in the animal).
Gene Behaviour: Oncomice, a transgenic animal, has breast and
lymph cancer gene(oncogene), and it is used for cancer studies.
Organ transplantation from animals to human beings, for e.g.
Transgenic pigs have been developed having human cell surface
protein thus preventing the organ (xenograft) from being rejected.
Pharming & Pharmaceutical proteins or Biopharmaceuticals
animals express foreign proteins which are harvested for commercial
utility. Few examples are-
Hormone- Human Insulin being produced in E.coli.
(Blood coagulating factor)
- used for Hemophiliacs is being produced in the milk of Sheep named
Polly (PPL Therapeutics from Scotland).
Antithrombin III (ATIII)
- an anti-clotting protein isolated from Transgenic Goat, Can Be
used during open-heart surgery
Similarly promoter of hen egg protein used for antibody production
(by TransXenogen company)
Biomaterials are Biomolecules used for the sake of its material
properties for other than their natural uses; for e.g. Spider silks
protein (spidroins) genes have been successfully cloned in
transgenic goats and the expressed proteins are isolated from its
milk as biopolymer and spun into fibers.