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Genetic Engineering-Working Areas

Alien/Foreign genes are transferred to animal and plant cell to get following desired features:

 

Working Areas

Genetic Engineering-Animal  

  • Production of Qualitatively and Quantitatively superior animal: through genetic engineering (inserting desired gene (controlling economically important characters) in the animal).

  • Study the Gene Behaviour: Oncomice, a transgenic animal, has breast and lymph cancer gene(oncogene), and it is used for cancer studies.

  • Xenotransplantation: Organ transplantation from animals to human beings, for e.g. Transgenic pigs have been developed having human cell surface protein thus preventing the organ (xenograft) from being rejected.

  • Molecular Pharming & Pharmaceutical proteins or Biopharmaceuticals Production: Transgenic animals express foreign proteins which are harvested for commercial utility. Few examples are-

  • Hormone- Human Insulin being produced in E.coli.

  • Factor IX (Blood coagulating factor) - used for Hemophiliacs is being produced in the milk of Sheep named Polly (PPL Therapeutics from Scotland).

  • Human Antithrombin III (ATIII) - an anti-clotting protein isolated from Transgenic Goat, Can Be used during open-heart surgery

  • Antibody production- Similarly promoter of hen egg protein used for antibody production (by TransXenogen company)

  • Biomaterials Production Biomaterials are Biomolecules used for the sake of its material properties for other than their natural uses; for e.g. Spider silks protein (spidroins) genes have been successfully cloned in transgenic goats and the expressed proteins are isolated from its milk as biopolymer and spun into fibers.

Genetic Engineering-Plants

Genetic Engineering, Transformation and Transgenic Plant Production: they are produced by inserting desired genes of any economic importance into the plant. Its applications are-

  • Improving Qualitative and Quantitative traits in plants- like fruit size, shape colour etc.

  • Biopesticide production- Genes (CRY9C)Taken From Bacillus thuringenesis for Pest Resistance Inserted Into Cotton, Maize i.e. Bt. Cotton

  • Virus Resistant Plant production- By inserting Viral Gene (protein) into the plant and the plant gets resistant to the virus.

  • Improving Nutritional properties of the plants- e.g. Golden  Rice is a transgenic plant with high Vitamin A content.

  • Molecular breeding- Transgenic plants express proteins, which are harvested for commercial benefits, e.g. Edible vaccines from vegetables, coming to market very soon.

  • Biomaterial Production- Bioplastic - PHB (Poly hydroxybutyrate) gene cloned from bacteria and inserted into Maize and Cotton. The PHB is then used as plastic raw material.

 

 

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