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Plant and Agro-Biotech

Career Opportunity-Educational Institutes 


Career Opportunities

          As India’s economy is based on agriculture, thus career in plant and agri-biotechnology offers a great opportunity to boost our economy vis-à-vis removing hunger and poverty. After Bt. Cotton was introduced in India in 2001-02 the cotton yield increased from 250 kg/hectare to 450kg/hectare in 2005-05. Since rice is a staple food in India therefore great potential lies in production and introduction of golden rice in nutritionally poor states. Another revolution is about to happen when we will successfully express nif gene in our cash crops and cut the cost of nitrogen fertilizer. Cultivation of crops with omega3 oils will be another milestone. Supreme court of India on 13th February 2008 has allowed the trials of genetically engineered crops, which was earlier allowed for Bt Cotton only. Other crops which can now undergo trials are Brinjal, Bhindi (Lady’s finger), Maize, Soyabean etc., whose genetically engineered varieties are largely being used in foreign country. Using plant biotechnology tools, traits like improved yield, quality, disease resistance, drought and frost-resistance and other desirable characteristics of the crop have been achieved.

          Plant breeding has been crucial in increasing agricultural production. It is now practiced worldwide by government institutions and commercial enterprises. Some well-known achievements are development of high yielding dwarf varieties of wheat and rice, which led to green revolution in India and helped the country in attaining self¬-sufficiency in food grain production. Plant breeders can make a career in education and research in 31 Agriculture Universities in the country, 40 ICAR Institutes; seed production Agencies of the government (National Seed Corporation, State Seed Corporations, SFCI, etc.,). International crop research institutes under CGIAR system also offers very high quality jobs to plant breeders.

           Indian seed industry, which is, valued at US $ 1000 million also offers large number of jobs. There are more than 200 seed companies operating in India. Now opportunities are opening up in International seed Industry. Which is valued at 22,776 million US $. At present India is exporting seed material worth 20 million US $. The export will increase in a big way in the coming years. The New Policy on Seed Development (NPSD), established in 1988 with the objective of augmenting productivity and output quality, stimulated major growth in the industry as it attracted a lot of investment in seed business from major domestic seed companies. Given the growth of the seed sector in recent years, India has the potential to become the foremost player in the seed export business in the developing world. With the opening up of the economy more and more private seed companies are coming to India and there will be large demand for Plant breeders in the private sector. Very few students are aware of the scope of Plant breeding and the large number of scholarships on offer to students of Agriculture.

           The seed industry has now grown hugely in its size and performance after independence of India. The public sector and private companies are involved in production of quality seed. The public sector companies in seed production include National Seed Corporation (NSC), State Farm Corporation of India (SFCI) and 13 State Seed Corporations (SSC). Apart from this, there are 21 State Seed Certification Agency, 105 Seed Testing Lab (68 had been notified includes a central seed testing lab) & 36 Breeder Seed Unit (BSU). The private sector comprises of more than 200 organized seed companies include national, multinational and other seed selling companies. In addition to this many other cooperative organization involved in seed multiplication and distribution of certain crop seeds.

          Horticulture Comprises Production And Post Harvest Management Of Fruits, Vegetables, Flowers, Spices, Nuts, Mushrooms, Tuber Crops, Medicinal And Aromatic Plants And Plantation Crops. Horticulture Includes Sub-disciplines namely "Pomology"-apple cultivation, "Vegetable Science", "Floriculture And Landscaping", And "Plantation Crops". Horticulture is the main stream of agriculture. It is a major source of food and employment.  Indian Council of Agricultural Research has Research centers throughout India  in every state. The research work is done at every centre. At present there are about 29 agricultural universities in our country where horticultural education and research is being carried out.

The total world market for seed is estimated to be around US$30 billion. If Indian seed industry is compared with the global scenario, the Indian seed programme is still in its nascent stage, because the estimated turn over (US$900 million) of India is less than 2 per cent of the global seed business of US$25 billion. With world trade expected to reach US$75 billion by 2020, India can easily walk away with a major portion of seed business by planning carefully and implementing at the right time. A large number of jobs require knowledge and training in horticulture. The level of training could be vocational or at the college level. The work may be indoors or outdoors. Many jobs in horticulture require diploma or degree in horticulture or agriculture. A college education provides more in-depth knowledge of the field and offers job opportunities at supervisory or managerial levels and to conduct research. At present there are more than 40 agricultural universities in our country.

In Govt. Sector:
(i) Scientist: Examination conducted by the Agriculture Scientist Recruitment Board, ICAR New Delhi offers opportunities for scientist. Eligibility: M.Sc. and Ph.D in Agriculture (in Horticulture, Plant breeding; Genetics; Seed sciences and Technology).
(ii) In Higher Education: As Lecturer, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor in Agriculture Universities and Colleges.
(iii) Training Organizer & Training Associate in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) controlled by ICAR, State Agricultural Universities, Non–Governmental Organizations and other Voluntary Organizations.

(iv) For M.Sc. in Seed sciences and Technology, jobs are available as Seed Production Officer (SPO)/ Seed Testing Officer (STO)/ Seed Inspector (SI)/ Seed Certification Officer (SCO) in National Seed Corporation (NSC), State Seed Corporations (SSCs), Central Seed Testing Lab (CSTL), State Seed Testing Lab (SSTL) & Breeder Seed Units (BSUs).

(v) For Graduate (Horticulture/Agriculture) jobs available at District Horticulture Officer/District Agriculture Officer through Exam conducted by  State Public Service Commission; As Technical Assistant/Technical Officer in Agriculture Universities, ICAR, DRDO, IARI &   CSIR.

(vi) Horticulture Inspector/Fruit & Vegetable Inspector/ Marketing Inspector
(vii) Training Assistant in Krishi Vigyan Kendra(KVK).
(viii) Farm Supervisor.
(ix) Section Officer (Horticulture/Landscaping), Horticulturist or Supervisor     Horticulture).
(x) Agriculture Development Officer.
(xi) Village Level Worker.
(xii) Agriculture Inspector.


In Private Sector:

(i) Students with M.Sc. in Seed sciences and Technology can work in-

(a) Research and Development (R&D) Section: RESEARCH: Many scientists are engaged in developing new and improve types of vegetables, fruits and ornamentals. Apart from improving the agronomic and nutritional qualities of plants, horticultural scientists also devote considerable time to improve the aesthetics of ornamentals and the quality of products.

(b) Production Section: Seed Companies Namely Syngenta, Mahyco, Namdhari, Nunhems, Century , Bejosheetal, J.K. Seeds And Indo-American Hybrid Seeds Are Some Of The Leading Commercial Organizations Engaged In Specialized Seed Production And Export Of Vegetable And Orna-Mental Crops Besides Many Smaller Companies. One can work as Production Director (Certified Seed)/Production Director (Foundation Seed)/Chief Production Officer (CPO)/ Zonal Officer (Seed Section) / Quality Control Officer/Production Manager/Production Coordinator/ Production Officer/Plant Supervisor/Farm Supervisor/ Production Assistant/Field Assistant in these companies.

(c) Marketing Section- Zonal Manager/Area Manager/ Marketing Manager/Sales Executive/Territory Sales Executive
(i) As Horticulturist/Horticulture Officer or Supervisor (Landscape) in Industries, Farm Houses, Hotels, Golf Courses & Construction Companies etc.
(ii) As Horticulture officer in processing companies of agriculture production.

Self Employment Opportunities:
(i) As Horticulture Consultant provide advice, design, evaluation, supervision of garden or orchard etc.

(ii) You can start the Agriculture clinic. Government provides money (up to Rs. 10.00 Lac) for this work.

(iii) Tissue Culture and Plant Supply: Tissue Cultured Plants Of Banana, Strawberry, Cardamom, Black Pepper And Many Of The Ornamental Plant Species Have Been In Demand In Domestic As Well As International Markets. Organizations Like Teri, Jain Irrigation Pvt. Ltd., Reliance Agro-Tech., Shivashakti Plant Biotech. Etc. Are Some Of The Leading Names Engaged In Specialized Business Of Tissue Cultured Plants. Raise commercial nursery of fruit plants, flower and ornamental plants

(iv) Seed producer of vegetables and flower crops.

(v) Fruit/Vegetable/Flower grower

(vi) Floral decorator/florist shop

(vii) Horticulture Services Contractor

(viii) Indoor Mushroom cultivation: Medicinal mushroom cultivation is a very lucrative business.

(ix) Seed dealer/Merchant

(x) Proprietor-cold storage

(xi) Processing work of Horticulture production

(xii) Landscape Designing and Beautification Township Construction, Tourism And Hotel Industry Has Been Expanding Rapidly All Over The Country. The Sector Has Been Employing Graduates And Post Graduates In Horticulture.
(xiii) Organic Horticulture: Organically Produced Fruits And Vegetables Have Been In Good Demand In Domestic And International Markets.

**Educational Institutes

          Agriculture and non-agriculture universities conduct entrance examinations for students in various disciplines in their colleges. There are two ways for the students to take admission in various agricultural colleges. The first is through all India ICAR entrance examination and the second is through the examination conducted by the State Agricultural Universities. The entrance examination conducted by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) provides scholarships to the students in the form of Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) and for Ph.D. in the form of Senior Research Fellowship (SRF). The number of seats in JRF and SRF varies according to the availability of seats in different universities during counseling and admission by time to time. There are 34 State Agricultural Universities (SAUs), 4 Deemed Universities and 3 Central Universities, which offer undergraduate programme in agriculture in our country. Most of the State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) and Deemed Universities don’t offer the Seed science and Technology at Masters level becomes a limiting factor for the students to pursue the course. However, it is important to note that there are some agricultural universities offering Seed Science and Technology at Masters and Ph.D. level in our country. So a Masters or PhD in Seed Science and Technology has bright prospects in Central Government, State Government and Private agencies of India and abroad. Students with M.Sc. in Botany and even Biotechnology with good command over applied aspects of botany can easily enter in agro-biotech company's R&D sections.

Eligibilities for Admissions to various courses related to Plant and Agro-biotechnology in Agriculture Universities in India:

(i) Eligibility for Admissions in M.Sc. in Genetics and Plant breeding: These courses are offered exclusively in the Agricultural colleges. A graduate degree in Agriculture is essential to pursue postgraduate course. The field is also open for postgraduates in Botany. Botany students have to study basic courses of Agriculture in addition to the courses in Plant breeding.


(ii) Eligibility for Admissions in M.Sc. in Seed Science and Technology. Only those candidates having passed their Bachelor’s degree or appearing in final examination in agriculture or in the biological sciences under 10 + 2 + 4 or 10 + 2 + 3 are eligible to apply for admission in the postgraduate programme of Seed Science and Technology.

(iii) Eligibility for Admissions in B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture:
Candidates who have passed 10+2 examinations conducted by central or state boards with agriculture or biology as one of the subjects besides physics and chemistry (science in case of agriculture) are eligible for the admission in B.Sc. In horticulture. Most of the agriculture universities conduct their own (or state level) entrance tests for admissions. For M.Sc. In horticulture, the candi-dates should have degree in B.Sc. (agriculture) or B.Sc. (horticulture). The Indian council of agricultural research (ICAR) conducts all india competitive examinations for admissions to fill 15% seats in B.Sc. Programmes in the state agricultural universities, central universities with agriculture faculty, and central agricultural university including B.Sc. In horticulture. ICAR provides 25% seats in M.Sc. Programmes of these universities in agriculture and allied science subjects including horticulture. Besides, all the seats in ICAR institute based deemed-to-be-universities are also filled through ICAR's  all India competitive examination based on merit. For PhD., in various sub-subjects of horticulture, the candidates should have passed M.Sc. Degree in concerned subject. Most of the state agriculture universities and ICAR institutes conduct entrance examinations for PhD. Admissions.


   **Educational Institutes

Acharya NG Ranga, agricultural university, Hyderabad. It includes: college of veterinary science, rajendra nagar, Hyderabad; and college of veterinary science, Tirupati.  Email :, Website:

Course: M.Sc. Plant breeding; Seed Science and Technology; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture.  

Aligarh Mushlim University.

Course: PG in Plant breeding.  

Allahabad Agricultural Institute Deemed University, Naini, Allahabad-211007 (U.P.).

Course: PG in Plant breeding; M.Sc. in Horticulture.

Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat. Course: B.Sc., B.V.Sc. in Food Processing Technology, Food and Dairy Tech., Dairy Tech.

Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608002 (Tamil Nadu);

Course: B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Horticulture.

Assam agricultural university, Jorhat. It includes: faculty of veterinary science, khanapara campus, Guwahati.

Course: PG in plant breeding; M.Sc. in Horticulture.

BHU Varanasi.

Course : PG in Plant breeding; M.Sc. in Horticulture.

Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya (BCKVV), Haringhatta, Nadia, West Bengal.

Course: Plant breeding; Seed Science and Technology; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture. Email :  

Birsa agricultural university, Ranchi, Jharkhand. It includes: faculty of veterinary science & animal husbandry, kanke, Ranchi.

Course : M.Sc. in Plant breeding; Horticulture; and B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Forestry.

Bundelkhand University, Jhansi, (U.P.). Department Of Biological Sciences, Jhansl, (U.P.).

Course : M.Sc. in Horticulture.

Central Agricultural University (CAU), Jroisemba, Imphal, Manipur; Course : Plant breeding; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture.

Ch. Sarwan Kumar Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (CSKHPKV), Palampur, Himachal Pradesh;

Course : Plant breeding.

Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology (CSAUT), Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh;

Course : M.Sc. in Plant breeding; Seed Science and Technology; Horticulture. Website:

Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj, University, Kanpur- 208024 (U.P.)

Kulbhaskar Asharam College, Allahabad, (U.P.).

Course :  M.Sc. in Horticulture. 

Choudhary charan singh haryana agricultural university, Hisar, Haryana. It includes: college of veterinary sciences, Hisar. Email : Website: 

Course : M.Sc. in Plant breeding; Seed Science and Technology; M.Sc. in Horticulture.

CSK Himachal Pradesh krishi vishwavidyalaya, palampur, H.P. It includes:  college of veterinary and animal sciences, Palampur.

Course : M.Sc. in Plant breeding

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Central, University, Lucknow-226025, (U.P.).

Course offered: M.Sc. in Horticulture.   

Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth (KKV) Dapoli, Maharashtra; Course : Plant breeding; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture. 

Dr. Punjab Rao Deshmukh Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (PKV), Krish Nagar, Akola, Maharashtra; Email : vc@pdkv. Website: 

Course : Plant breeding; Seed science and technology; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture; and B.Sc. in Forestry.

Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry (YSPUH&F), Solan, Himachal Pradesh;

Course : Plant breeding; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture; and B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Agro-Forestry and Forestry Products.  

Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand.

Course: B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Forestry

Govind ballabh pant university of agriculture & technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. It includes: college of veterinary and animal sciences, Pantnagar. Email :, Website:

Course : M.Sc. in Plant breeding; seed science and technology; Horticulture; and B.Sc. in Forestry.

Gujarat agricultural university, banaskantha, Gujarat. It includes: college of veterinary science and animal husbandry, anand; and college of veterinary science and animal husbandry, sardar krushi nagar.

Course : M.Sc. in Plant breeding; B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Forestry.

Hemwati Nanadan Bahuguna Garhwal University, Dehradun-246174 (Uttaranchal). Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University, Srinagar College Campus (Uttaranchal);

Course : M.Sc. in Horticulture.  

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi.

Course : PG in Plant breeding; Seed sciences and technology; M.Sc. in Horticulture. Website:

Indira gandhi krishi vishwavidyalaya, Raipur chhattisgarh. It includes: Dhanteshawari College of Horticulture (Chhattisgarh); and K. L. College of Horticulture (Chhattisgarh). Gayatri College of Horticulture, Bilaspur, (Chhattisgarh), College of Horticulture, Bilaspur, (Chhattisgarh)

Course : PG in animal genetics and breeding, Plant breeding; B.Sc. Horticulture.

Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. It includes:  college of veterinary science & animal husbandry, jabalpur; and college of veterinary science & animal husbandry, Mhow. Email :  

Course :  Seed Science and Technology; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture; and B.Sc. in Forestry. 

Kerala agricultural university, Thrissur, Kerala. It includes: college of veterinary & animal sciences, mannuthy, thrissur; and college of veterinary and animal sciences, pookot. Email : Website:  

Course : M.Sc. in Seed Science and Technology; M.Sc. in Horticulture; and B.Sc., M.Sc. in Forestry.

Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth.

Course: B.Sc. in Forestry.

Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand-263001.

Course: M.Sc. in Forestry.

Maharana Pratap University Of Agriculture & Technology, RCA Campus, Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan);

Course: M.Sc. in Horticulture

Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth (MPKV), Rahuri, Maharashtra;

Course : PG in Plant breeding; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture.

Marathwada Agricultural University(MAU), Parbhani , Maharashtra;

Course : PG in Plant breeding; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture.

Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology (NDUAT), Faizabad, Course : PG in Plant breeding; M.Sc. in Horticulture .

Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396 450 (Gujarat);

Course: B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture and PG in Plant breeding

North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong.

Course: M.Sc in Forestry

Orissa university of agriculture & technology, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa. It includes: college of veterinary science and animal husbandry, bhubaneshwar. Email :

Course : M.Sc. in Plant breeding; Seed science and Technology; M.Sc. in Horticulture; and B.Sc. in Forestry.

Pandit Ravi Shankar Shukla University, Raipur-49200100.

Course: M.Sc. in Forestry.

P.G. College, Ghazipur (U.P.), affiliated to V.B.S. Purvanchal University, Jaunpur-222 002 (U.P.) course offered: M.Sc. in Horticulture.

Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana, Punjab;

Course offered: PG in Plant breeding; Seed science and technology; M.Sc. in Horticulture.  Email :  

Rajasthan agricultural university, Bikaner, Rajasthan. It includes: college of veterinary and animal science, bikaner.

Course : M.Sc. in plant breeding; M.Sc. in Horticulture .

Rajendra agricultural university, samastipur bihar. It includes: bihar veterinary college, patna.

Course : M.Sc. in Plant breeding; Seed Sciecne and Technology; M.Sc. in Horticulture  Email :

SardarKrushiNagar-Dantiwada Agricultural University (SDAU), Sardar Krishi Nagar, Banaskantha, Gujarat;

Course : M.Sc. in Plant breeding

Sher-e-kashmir university of agricultural science & technology of kashmir, srinagar. Faculty of veterinary sciences & animal husbandry, shuhama, srinagar. Course : M.Sc. in Plant breeding; M.Sc. in Horticulture .

Sher-e-kashmir University technology of Jammu, Jammu. It includes: faculty of veterinary sciences and animal husbandry, RS Pura, Jammu.

Course: PG in animal genetics and breeding; plant breeding; M.Sc. in Horticulture; B.Sc. in Forestry .

Shri Durgaji, Degree College, Chandesar, Ajamgarh (U.P), affiliated to V.B.S. Purvanchal University, Jaunpur-222 002 (U.P.).

Course: M.Sc. in Horticulture .

Tamil nadu veterinary & animal science university, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. It includes: madras veterinary college, chennai; and veterinary college and research institute, Namakkal.

Course: M.Sc. in Plant breeding.

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore– 641 003 Tamilnadu Pt. . Email :; Website:

Course: PG in seed science and Technology; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture; and B.Sc. in Forestry. Affiliated college-Jawahar Lal Nehru Agriculture College and Research Institute, Karaikal. (Tamil Nadu).

University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bangalore, Karnataka. Website:  

Course: M.Sc. in Plant breeding; seed science and technology; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture.

University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Krishi Nagar Dharwad, Karnataka; Email : Website:   Course: PG in Plant breeding seed sciences and technology; B.Sc., M.Sc. in Horticulture; and B.Sc. in Forestry.

Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya (UBKV), P.O. Pundibari, Distt. Cooch Behar, West Bengal; Course: M.Sc. in Plant breeding; B.Sc. in Horticulture.

Vallabh Bhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology (SVBPUAT), Modipuram, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.

Course: PG in Plant breeding.

Visva Bharati, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Sriniketan (W.B.);

Course: M.Sc. in Plant breeding; Horticulture


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